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Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[188] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[189] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[190] Others raised similar critiques.[191] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[192][193] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[194] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[195]

Statistica 12 Crack Serial 37

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Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[243][244] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[244] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[244]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[245][246]

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[297][298][299] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, created articles with his bot Lsjbot, which was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[300] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[301] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[298] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[302] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[303]

Premature infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus may improve with serial fontanelle taps. The majority of patients with a posterior fossa tumor who present with hydrocephalus do not require a permanent shunt. A ventriculostomy may be placed temporarily preoperative or intraoperative to help for the tumor resection and removed when not needed. Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, decreases CSF secretion by the choroid plexus and hence used in the treatment of hydrocephalus. It is mostly used in pseudotumor cerebri.

Little League opening day parade: Celebrate the coming of spring and crack of the first bat as the Brooklyn Little Leaguers and their parents march through Park Slope, with the ceremonial first pitch thrown at the Prospect Park Bandshell. Free. 10 am. Prospect Park [Seventh Avenue at Carroll Street in Park Slope, (718) 965-8954], 350c69d7ab


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